ASTM International (ASTM), originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
ASTM predates other standards organizations such as BSI (1901), DIN (1917) and AFNOR (1926), but differs from these in that it is not a national standards body, that role being taken in the USA by ANSI.  However, ASTM has a dominant role among standards developers in the USA, and claims to be the world's largest developer of standards. Using a consensus process, ASTM supports thousands of volunteer technical committees, which draw their members from around the world and collectively develop and maintain more than 12,000 standards.  The Annual Book of ASTM Standards consists of 77 volumes.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for the safety regulation of most types of foods, dietary supplements, drugs, vaccines, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics.
A fluoropolymer is a polymer that contains atoms of fluorine. It is characterized by a high resistance to solvents, acids, and bases.
Fluoropolymers were discovered serendipitously in 1938 by Dr. Roy J. Plunkett. He was working on freon (for the DuPont corporation) and accidentally polymerized tetrafluoroethylene. The result was PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), more commonly known as Teflon® - a DuPont brand name. This material had the lowest coefficient of friction of any known solid and was inert to virtually all chemicals.
A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds.  The word is derived from the Greek, p???, polu, "many"; and µ????, meros, "part".  Well known examples of polymers include plastics, DNA and proteins.
Ram Extrusion – Pipe Liners
Ram extrusion of pipe liners uses a granular PTFE powder and compresses a small amount of powder into a continuous die, forcing a compressed material out which goes into an inline sintering oven.
The ability to withstand and electrical charge.
Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, by heating the material (below its melting point) until its particles adhere to each other.  Sintering is traditionally used for manufacturing ceramic objects, and has also found uses in such fields as powder metallurgy.
Surface Resistivity
The ability to withstand an electrical charge passing along the surface.
Volume Resistivity
The ability to withstand an electrical charge passing through a material.

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